Russian Philosophy and the Theme of Culture in the Context of “Phenomenology of Spirit” of Hegel


The article is devoted to the problem of perception of ideas in “Phenomenology of Spirit” of Hegel in the Russian
Philosophy of the 19th–20th centuries.
The culture is analyzed by the categories. The cultures is analyzed in its development and in the basic form
constructions: in Hegel’s work as the unity of Education (Bilding) and Spirit (Geist), in the work by P.A. Chaadaev as
the spiritual and moral measurement of civilization; in the work of I.V. Kireevsky as the spirit that let the civilization and
historical representation of “Education” and “Enlightment”; in the work of B.N. Chicherin as the double spirit in religion
(form of synthesis) and philosoph (form of analysis).
Then the article analyzes the culture in the work of V.S. Soloviev as the development from the primitive culture
to the universal one according to the law of triple dialectical movement.
In the work of G.G. Shpet the culture is considered as educational aspiration put into the Antique period that lasted
till the Revolution of 1789; in the work of A.F. Locev as the culture of slaves (in the period of Ancient Greece); in the
work of M.K. Petrov as “deck culture” (pirate culture in its sense).
In the universal sense, the culture started in the thought as the understanding of “non-educational” situation of
individual (Hegel). Then it is transformed in “People” (Kireevsky), then in Humankind (Soloviev). In the works of M.K.
Petrov this category is transformed in child in the fullness of its cutural sense (the innocent person from 2 till 5).
The article concludes with the constatation that the philosophy of spirit develops into the philosophy of culture.
Besides, the article gives the comparative characteristics of the main results of the philosophical and historical tradition
of the Cultural Studies in Russia.
culture, education (bilding), religion,philosophy

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