Problems of the Birth Rate of the Population of the Stavropol Region and Its Dynamics on the Eve and During the Great Patriotic War (1939–1945)

(Branch Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute in Essentuki)

(Pyatigorsk State University)

(Pyatigorsk State University)

Purpose: First of all, purpose of this article is the determination of fertility and the specific reproduction processes of the population in Stavropol Krai and determined their factors during the period from 1939 to 1945 the Choice of this time period due to the fact that the Great Patriotic war was a large number of demographic losses of military conflict that led to complex social and demographic processes in the territory of the Soviet Union.
The authors consider it necessary to note, that the problem of reproduction of the population of the USSR in 1939–1945 is still not became a subject of special scientific research. Meanwhile, the birth rate is, on the one hand, the most important component of the demographic system of society, the most vulnerable in times of military turmoil. On the other hand, a careful study of objectively showing the exact direction of demographic processes, and the degree of their transformations with long-term consequences for the population.
Methods: When writing of this study were used methods of historical analysis, synthesis, ideographic method, as well as the fundamental principle of historicism.
Results: Archival materials eloquently about the demographic catastrophe in the Stavropol region in the 30s. In particular, the birth rate in 1938 compared to 1937 decreased by 6.8 %. Analysis of materials on the natural movement of the population of the Stavropol Territory on the eve of the Great Patriotic War showed a very large percentage of deaths of children under the age of one year and the overall infant mortality. The demographic situation, characteristic of the military period, was as follows. So, if in 1939 the birth rate in the province was 70,503 people, in 1941 it was only 2,177 people. In 1943, after the liberation of the region from the German fascist invaders, the birth rate grew to 1,796 people. Moreover, a much higher fertility rate was demonstrated by the Stavropol village, and not by the city. This was the specificity of reproduction processes in the Stavropol region, in contrast to the industrial regions of the country.
Discussion: The tragic consequences of Stalin’s massive collectivization in the early 1930s was the main endogenous factor, which had negative effects on the processes of natural reproduction of the population of the Soviet Union, and especially agricultural regions, including the Stavropol territory.
Negative impact on the dynamics of the birth rate of the population was affected by the gender imbalance that took place in society during the period under study.
census of 1939, birth rate, quantitative dynamics of birth rate, birth rate, gender imbalance, demographic deformations

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