The problem of formation of a new model of Church-state relations after the February revolution in the decisions of the Don extraordinary Congress of clergy and laity in 1917

(Don State Technical University)

The political position of the clergy of the southern dioceses of Russia after the February revolution of 1917 is a little-studied aspect of the socio-political history of the period of revolution and Civil war. This is especially true of the views of the don clergy.
The article explores this problem, based on the analysis of the official position of the clergy, which is reflected in the resolutions of the diocesan congresses of clergy and laity, letters and proclamations. Used as already known sources, and for the first time introduced into scientific circulation, among which in the first place, are the materials of the don extraordinary diocesan Congress of clergy and laity in 1917.
The main conclusions of the study are as follows. The change of the political system was perceived by the clergy as a breath of long-awaited freedom, as an opportunity for the Church to self-determination and self-organization, which indicates what state pressure the Church was subjected to during the Synodal system. The clergy condemned the lack of freedoms in the state, arbitrariness
and autocracy, ignoring social and social needs and the need for significant reforms, including changes in the system of state-Church relations, without which, in the opinion of the clergy, the development of the state is not possible. The participation of the clergy in political life was considered desirable, but it had to be non-partisan.
The clergy was granted freedom of political opinion. The clergy of the don diocese was unanimous in the fact that there was no return to the old order of things, first of all, to the former system of state-Church relations. However, it should be noted
that the protest against the old system of public administration did not contain a shadow of condemnation of the monarchy as such.
Welcoming the Provisional government, the clergy in General acted in the spirit of the policy of the Holy Synod, it saw its mission in the public service of econciliation of all the warring parties, and not in support of one of them. The Congress was not something radical and innovative, its decisions had the character of expression of will, the final decision was given to the Supreme body of Church administration – the all-Russian local Council. Thus, the don diocesan Congress of clergy and laity showed the desire to solve problems in the canonical field.
political position of the clergy, don extraordinary diocesan Congress of clergy and laity of 1917, reform of Church-state relations, reform of Church administration, Archbishop Mitrofan of don (Simashkevich), Bishop Hermogenes of Aksai (Maximov), February revolution

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